The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Lynparza (olaparib), for use in patients with deleterious or suspected deleterious germline BRCA-mutated (gBRCAm), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer who have been previously treated with chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting.
Patients with hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer should have been treated with a prior endocrine therapy or be considered inappropriate for endocrine therapy. Patients are selected for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic from Myriad Genetics.
“This new approval for Lynparza makes it the first and only PARP inhibitor approved in metastatic breast cancer, and the only PARP inhibitor approved beyond ovarian cancer. This is significant for breast cancer patients, as the identification of BRCA status, in addition to hormone receptor and HER2 status, becomes a potentially critical step in the management of their disease,” says Dave Fredrickson, Executive Vice President, Head of the Oncology Business Unit, AstraZeneca.
The approval was based on data from the randomised, open-label, Phase III OlympiAD trialwhich investigated Lynparza versus physician’s choice of chemotherapy (capecitabine, eribulin, or vinorelbine). In the trial, Lynparza significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with chemotherapy, and reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 42% (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.80; P=0.0009 median 7.0 vs 4.2 months). Patients with measurable disease taking Lynparza (n=167) experienced an objective response rate of 52% (95% CI 44-60), double the response rate for those in the chemotherapy arm (n=66) which was 23% (95% CI 13-35). Additionally, patients experienced a confirmed complete response rate of 7.8% for Lynparza compared to 1.5% for the chemotherapy arm. The data from the OlympiAD trial can be found in the June 2017 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in the OlympiAD trial of patients who received Lynparza were nausea (58%), anaemia (40%), fatigue (including asthenia) (37%), vomiting (30%), neutropenia (27%), respiratory tract infection (27%), leukopenia (25%), diarrhoea (21%), and headache (20%). The percentage of patients who discontinued treatment in the Lynparza arm was 5% compared to the chemotherapy arm which was 8%.
This is the third indication approved for Lynparza in the US, where it has been used to treat nearly 4,000 advanced ovarian cancer patients. Lynparza has the broadest clinical development programme of any PARP inhibitor, and AstraZeneca and MSD are working together to deliver Lynparza as quickly as possible to more patients across multiple settings, including breast, ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancers.